There are several linguistic groups widely recognised in Europe. These sometimes (but not always) coincide with cultural and historical connections between the various nations, though in other cases religion is considered a more significant distinguishing factor.Romance languages
Main article: Latin Europe
Romance languages are spoken more or less in south-western Europe, as well as Romania and Moldova which are situated in Eastern Europe. This area consists of: Andorra, Italy, Portugal, France, Spain, Romania, Moldova, French-speaking Belgium (Wallonia, partly Brussels), French-speaking Switzerland (Romandy), Romansh-speaking Switzerland, and Italian-speaking Switzerland. All Romance languages are derived from the Roman language, Latin.Germanic languages
Main article: Germanic Europe
Germanic languages are spoken more or less in north-western Europe and some parts of central Europe. This region consists of: Norway, Sweden, Germany, the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, Denmark, the Netherlands, Dutch-speaking Belgium (Flanders, partly Brussels), Austria, Liechtenstein, most of Switzerland, Iceland and the German-speaking areas of Wallonia, the Faroe Islands, Luxembourg, the Swedish-speaking municipalities of Finland, and South Tyrol in Italy.Slavic languages
Main article: Slavic Europe
Slavic languages are spoken in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. This area consists of: Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, regions of Saxony and Brandenburg in Germany(Sorbs), Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine.Uralic languages
The Uralic languages are divided into three main groups, two of which have representatives in Europe. The Finno-Permic languages are spoken in Finland, Estonia, and parts of Sweden, Norway, Latvia, and European Russia while the Ugric languages are spoken in Hungary and parts of Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Ukraine, and Siberian Russia. These two groups comprise the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family.Altaic languages
Turkic Languages are spoken in Turkey, Azerbaijan, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (recognised only by Turkey), parts of Bulgaria, parts of Greece, parts of Romania, parts of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, parts of Moldova, parts of Russia, parts of Ukraine and parts of the Caucasus and in Turkish diaspora communities in several other European countries (most notably Germany, France, Belgium, and the Netherlands).Baltic languages
Baltic languages are spoken in Lithuania and Latvia. Estonia's national language is part of the Finno-Ugric family even though it is a Baltic state geographically.Celtic languages
Main article: Celtic Europe
"Celtic language" was originally used only to describe the Scottish and Irish Gaelic language; however, the term now extends to the other Gaelic and Brythonic languages. Celtic Europe is comprised of those countries and regions where Celtic languages are spoken. The Celtic nations are: Scotland and Ireland, Wales, Cornwall (UK County), the Isle of Man (a British Crown dependency) and Brittany (a department in France). These are all nations where a Celtic language is spoken and share in Celtic organisations (see Pan Celticism).
Considered Celtic nations are Galicia and Asturias (both autonomous communities of Spain), as well as northwest Portugal. Scotland, Ireland and Wales and Some regions of England (in addition to Cornwall) have retained a degree of Celtic influence in their regional dialects (see Cumbric, Highland English and Hiberno-English), although England's Celtic languages died out as recently as the 18th century in Devon and Cornwall.Other languages
Outside of these six main linguistic groups one can find:
English a hybrid of Germanic, Romance and Celtic languages is the native language of England and the British Isles.
The Greek language, an Indo-European language spoken in Greece, Cyprus, and parts of Turkey, Albania, and Italy, and in Greek diaspora communities in several other European countries (most notably Germany).
The Albanian language, which, like the Greek language, forms its own independent branch of the Indo-European language family with no close living relatives. Major Albanian-speaking communities outside Albania live in Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Greece, Turkey, and southern Italy.
The North Caucasian, a group that includes ethnic groups throughout the Caucasus region (both North and South). North Caucasian languages are divided into two main branches: Northeast Caucasian and Northwest Caucasian. This group includes Abkhaz, Chechens, Ingush, Bats, and a number of other smaller ethnic groups that reside in the Caucasus.
The South Caucasian, or Kartvelian languages, a group that includes the Georgian language.
The Maltese language, a heavily Romanticized Semitic language, is spoken in Malta. Unlike other Semitic languages, Maltese is written in the Roman alphabet.
The Basque language is spoken in parts of southern France and northern Spain, i.e. the Basque Country.
The Mongolic branch of the Altaic phylum is represented in Europe by the Kalmyk language, which is spoken by the Kalmyk people in Kalmykia, a constituent republic of the Russian Federation.